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Thread: Reintroduction of Cheetahs in India

  1. #1
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    Default Reintroduction of Cheetahs in India

    Found this article on the net... Wonder what the repercussions of this would be... What are your takes on this???

    Cheetah experts from across the world are congregating here tomorrow to discuss the strategy to translocate the fastest
    animal on earth here in a bid to repopulate the species which was last seen in the country in the 1960s.

    "It is an attempt to reintroduce the animal here on the line of tiger relocation plan. We need to do a feasibility study and, if convinced, we will certainly give a go-ahead. Since Iran has already refused to part its animal, we will approach South Africa which has abundant of the species," union environment minister Jairam Ramesh, who will inaugurate the workshop, said

    Cheetah experts from Iran, South Africa, Wildlife Institute of India (WII) and National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) besides Wildlife Trust of India which has conceived the animal relocation plan will attend the workshop.

    Unlike their Asiatic cousins, African cheetahs stalk prey in semi-arid and partially forested grasslands.

    Experts hope their introduction will encourage better husbandry in the areas such as Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh.

    Big cat specialist M. K. Ranjitsinh, the chairman of WTI, said "suitable habitats are abundant in India but are being managed terribly. The cheetah could be an important symbol, a lever to help protect even rarer species in the same areas."

    The plan is the brain child of Ranjitsinh and Divyabhanu Chawda and if given the go-ahead by the Environment Ministry Gajner sanctuary might have Cheetah by next year.


    The full article can be found at http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/n...ow/4987575.cms
    Regards,
    Bibhav Behera
    www.orissawildlife.blogspot.com

  2. #2
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    If there is suitable habitat then I see no reason why it should not be done. As M.K.Ranjitsinh points out , they are badly managed and re-introduction of the Cheetah will certainly help in better management.

    However I do not think Gajner is suitable , I have been there years ago and if memory serves me right it is too small.

    However I do reccomend a visit to Gajner , it is one of the most beautiful spots in this world .

  3. #3
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    My concern would be finding the right terrain for the cheetah... it would need plains for it to hunt properly... It is an animal highly specialised (speed is its forte). So its advantage over the prey wud be its speed. in absence of proper meadows/ grasslands it would be unable to hunt properly... and if injured would eventually die. It is smaller and isnt as strong as the other big cats of the country.
    Any idea of the previous cheetah habitations in India until the 60's?
    Regards,
    Bibhav Behera
    www.orissawildlife.blogspot.com

  4. #4
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    I too feel the reintroduction of cheetahs would be great. Agree with the points you people mentioned.

    In reply to Bibhav's query: (Extract from S.H. Prater)
    Cheetahs were found in the plains and lower hills of north and central India, some straggling as far south as the Deccan. They lived among rocky terrain in the lower hills and descended to the plains to hunt. They fed mainly on antelope, sometimes taking small mammals and birds.

  5. #5
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    Default No African Cheetahs please.

    I have been hearing about bringing cheetah's from Iran for a long time. Finally, that has been dropped as we could not get atleast a pair of Asiatic Cheetahs from Iran. Now, that idea has been twisted and it is being contemplated to get the African cheetah for introduction in India.

    I disagree with this idea of introducing African cheetah in India. It is a grand plan like many of the muddle headed large projects. Offlate, we have taken a fancy to large projects - grandiose dreams hog all the attention, however ill conceived they may be. The African Cheetah introduction experiment is one of those.

    I agree that the word cheetah has been derived from Sanskrit. However, the African cheetah is an exotic species.

    I am surprised by the talk of Asiatic and African cheetah being a single species. Just a few months back our WII scientists had said that tigers should not be brought from Madhya Pradesh to Rajasthan. And a strange reason was given. It was said that they belong to two different species. The jungles of Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan were contiguous till the last few decades. If a few decades of separation can ensure a species acquire distinct characteristics then I don’t understand why thousands of years of separation can’t make the Asiatic cheetah as a separate species. To those who have forgotten geography, I would like to remind you that Africa and Asia got separated after the break up of Gondwana land.

    The African cheetah was never a part of this landscape. So it should not be a part of this landscape.

    Also since it was never a part of this landscape, we should not use the word reintroduction.

    The proponents of this project say that it will help in habitat protection. I disagree. How many square kms of habitat are we talking? We simply don’t have grasslands bigger than 30-40 Sq. kms. And if we are thinking of having a project in such a small area than it is like a small safari in a zoo. And if you seriously want to create grasslands than go to an infamous place like Kalahandi, acquire the unused land and create a suitable grassland habitat. It would take several years of course. Unfortunately, we don’t have to ability and will power to execute such an idea. And if we had the ability to do it, I would still oppose it as it is an exotic species.

    It is said that introduction of African cheetah would lead to better protection of the existing species. There are existing projects like Project Tiger, Project Elephant etc. We do have sanctuaries after particular species. However, we don't pay attention to the existing protected areas. Don't understand how introduction of African Cheetah can break this apathy.

    The proponents of the African cheetah introduction have branded the opposition to it as coming from the “tiger lobby”. Frankly speaking by branding all opposition as tiger lobby, people are trying to hide the structural deficiencies in our conservation efforts.

    A charismatic species like the Tiger is on the brink. So definitely Cheetah can’t succeed where tiger has failed in overcoming the structural issues. For eg. Where is the protection?

    Who is protecting? Our frontline guard force, foresters, rangers etc are old. Half of the posts are lying vacant. A number of places also require more manpower than the sanctioned capacity. They don’t get their salaries in time. They are demotivated, ill equipped. Who is looking into this basic issue?

    In our federal setup, the forests are under the control of the states. It is laughable when one state doesn’t allow translocation of a species to a forest in another state. Rather than accepting the risk of failure, our esteemed WII officials come out with theories that tigers in Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh are of different species. We haven’t been able to save the Asiatic lion. Gujarat is not willing to give a few lions from Gir to be translocated to Madhya Pradesh. Even though that is vital for the survival of lions in this country.

    Our forest department is still oriented with the colonial hangover of calculating our forest wealth in terms of cubic feet of timber. Too often we resort to cheap gimmicks rather than ecologically sound plans. The few scientists of repute in this country are mostly depending upon their studies for support rather than illumination – the way a drunken person uses the lamp posts.

    I would like to quote the late Kailash Sankhala here: “ We seem to forget the fact that nature cannot be protected by chanting Vedic mantras or celebrating ‘Vana Mahotsava’ and National Wildlife Weeks, nor by building mathematical models and writing glossy management plans, nor by making formal declarations of intent in quick succession….”

    Gimmicks like African Cheetah introduction doesn’t help in our conservation and should not be a part of our vision. We have better things to do like energising our frontline protection force, creating ecologically sound management plans and implementing those, prosecution of poachers, restoration of wildlife corridors, relocation of villages from the forest and resettling the villagers, creating a dedicated wildlife department etc, than get swayed by such gimmicks.

    Cheers,
    Sabyasachi

  6. #6
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    Having read all your posts on the Cheetah may I add that according to Dunbar Brander (Wild Animals of Central India 1923 - Pg 273) '...is now very rare in the Central Provinces'. R. Lydekker's 'Game Animals of India, Burma, Malaya and Tibet' 1924, IInd Edn. Revised by J.G. Dollman pgs 344-347 gives some description of the extent of its range. Written here is something unique, the book refers to Cheetahs - Hunting Leopards - as hunting in pairs. A report written by a hunter from Hyderabad State describes hunting using them. All pictures, paintings etc. of muslim and Mogul rulers in India depict hunts with Cheetah, Saluki Hounds, Falcons and Hawks. The question then is; was the Cheetah got in for hunting and left feral during the non-hunting period? I have read such treatise written by old hunters, and one hunt was mentioned to me by the Master of Hunts of one of the Princes of Hyderabad. [The Central Asian Falconers even today release Golden Eagles, Peregrines etc. after the hunting season is over to capture another one later and train for the hunt.] If so, then may be we can explain its demise in India. May be we should revisit very old literature, the Jahingir Nama could be a good start to know if the Cheetah existed indigenously here in India, for their range speaks of Northern and Central Indian plains and Deccan where the Moguls and other Muslim rulers ruled. There are no reports of the Cheetah beyond the Krishna River where plains extend and Blackbuck abounded and were ruled by the Hindu rulers. Coincidence?

    Cheers,
    Rajeev M.

  7. #7
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    Addressing two points brought up by previous posts . 1. Native or Feral 2.Distribution.

    ( Taken from a paper titled THE ORIGIN, RANGE AND STATUS OF THE
    ASIATIC (OR INDIAN) CHEETAH OR HUNTING LEOPARD
    (Acinonyx iubatus veneticus)
    A Tentative Position Paper
    by
    Divyabhanu Sinnh )

    This argument seems to have it origin in two sources. The first being the absence of identifiable mention of the Cheetah in Sanskrit literature i.e. before the Muslim invasions of the sub-continent and the second being the fact that import of cheetahs from Africa had become a regular feature among the Princes by 1927.

    I find the argument that the import of cheetahs in this century from Africa is evidence of the animals being imported in earlier times whose progeny went wild subsequently to be extremely weak. Let us take a closer look at the historical records that we have at our disposal.

    Akbar is recorded as having devised a new method of trapping cheetahs in the wild in India and also of training them at his court for hunting. This supposes that older methods existed and that the Cheetah was found wild in India. Akbar is also known to have had 1000 cheetahs at one time in his menagerie and Mutamad Khan records that in his lifetime Akbar had collected 9000 cheetahs .Now if these animals were collected in one reign alone it would have resulted in a flourishing and lucrative import trade which would not have gone unnoticed in the various chronicles. In fact, there is no mention of import trade of cheetahs in the Akbarnama, Ain-1-Akbari or Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri .Thus this confirms not just the presence of wild Cheetahs in India but also give us a fair idea of their numbers in the wild.

    On the other hand it was found that the Cheetah was very difficult to breed in captivity. When one pair did bred in captivity and produced three young it was precisely recorded by Emperor Jahangir and by Mutamad Khan in his Iqbalnama. It was obviously a matter of joy to the Emperor since the event was so rare and Mutamad Khan considered it to be "among the curious events" that occurred during the reign of Jahangir. Under such circumstances it is difficult to contemplate that the Cheetah was prolific enough to multiply rapidly and successfully to the extent that it was found all over the sub-continent in a feral state even if it was imported by the early Muslim invaders of India, say 300 years before the Mughals arrived on the sub-continent.


    Sanskrit literature is notorious for its descriptive inaccuracy, ask any scientists working to identify roots, fruits, flowers, leaves, etc, for ayurvedic medicines. When one tries to identify animals and birds one is on equally slippery grounds. A recent study of flora and fauna in Sanskrit literature (Banerji, 1980) records 50 species of animals with more or less accurate identification including seven species of domestic animals. Prater (1980) on the other hand records 136 species of animals (not including domesticated ones and marine mammals) found on the sub-continent. If one is to accept the proposition that cheetahs were not found in India before the Muslim period on the basis of their not being identifiably recorded in Sanskrit literature, one can also reach the conclusion that some 90 species of animals known to us to-day were imported by the Mughals or their successors. Further, according to the same study, the word Dvipl could denote a Tiger, Leopard and Snow leopard. The word Harina (also Mrga, Kuranagama, Rsya, Nyanku Ena) could denote any member of the deer and antelope family found in India .The Lion, on the other hand, is referred to as Simha, Mrigendra, Mrgadhipa, Mrigaraja, Hari and Kesrin. It is quite clear that accurate identification of any animal, leave alone the Cheetah in Sanskrit literature would be very difficult if not impossible.

    So we can conclude that the Cheetah is or was indeed native to India. It would be quite interesting to find out more details of its range within the country. To all purposes it should have been the same as the range of its main prey ie the Chinkara. It is supposed that the Chinkara was its main prey and not the Blackbuck and thus the Cheetahs distribution would have mirrored that of the Chinkara more than that of the Blackbuck. This range included areas of Sind, Gujarat, Punjab, Rajputana, Central India and Deccan and as far south as Mysore.

    A glance at the written records of various individuals, both British and Indian, give us a representative record of the Cheetah’s range in India over the last hundred years or so. Forsyth, writing in 1889, states that he had come across and shot cheetahs 'several times' in Central India. Russell (1900) records having seen five cheetahs in August 1882 in Berrambadie forest of Mysore district, of which he shot one. He also records that the animal was not seen to be numerous anywhere though it was more common in Jaipur and Hyderabad. G.O. Allen (1919) states that he saw in 1916 the skin of a Cheetah killed by villagers 30 miles south of Mirzapur. Only five animals were recorded in 25 years prior to that in the region. R.G. Burton (1920) states that he never saw a Cheetah in the wild. In one instance he saw tracks in Buldana district of Berar. He records seeing three skins of animals shot in Melghat forest. One was shot at Damangao in 1894 and one in 1895. He quotes Buchanan Hamilton, who believed the Cheetah to be found all over the hilly parts of India but numerous only around Hyderabad. Sir Montague Gerard told Burton that he had ridden and speared cheetahs in Central India. Raj Kumar (later Maharaja) Sardulsinghji of Bikaner shot three Cheetahs out of a bunch of five seen by him in Rewa state around 1925.L.L. Fenton (1920) records that in Bombay Presidency Cheetahs occurred in limited numbers in the Kathiawar province. In 17 years of his stay in Kathiawar he had heard of only nine cheetahs. Two were shot by "natives" in Chotila two by S.A. Strip of Wadhawan Garassia School at Wadhwani and of the remaining five cheetahs, one each was speared by Mr. Waddington, Principal,
    Rajkumar College, Rajkot, and himself, and three were dispatched by other officers. In the same vicinity the late Maharana Raj Saheb Sir Amarsinhji of Wankaner shot two cheetahs between 1900 and 1910 (Y. Digvijay Sinhji, 1984). J.M. Richardson (1929) shot a specimen in Chindwara district, and was informed by the Commissioner of the Division that for 50 years a Cheetah had not been reported in those parts. R.C. Morris (1935 <!') records his father as having seen one in Attikalpur in Mysore District. He also refers to F.W. Jackson's "Mammals of the Coimbatore District" published in 1875, which records that the Cheetah was sparsely distributed there (Morris, 1935<2>). The last record of cheetahs in the wild in India is of 1948 when the ruler of Korwai state (wrongly referred to as Korea in the Journal of Bombay Natural History Society) senselessly destroyed three of them while these animals were transfixed in strong headlights at night.
    Last edited by Vikram Nanjappa; 20-09-2009 at 07:09 PM. Reason: Additional info./

  8. #8
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    Default Another Article on the Cheetah Issue

    India has joined the race to save cheetahs, the animal species it lost sometime in 1947, from extinction. Despite the setbacks on the tiger front in the recent years, the country is considering the re-introduction of cheetahs, the only animal it lost in the past 1000 years of conservation history, into its wild. A time frame of six months has been kept for selecting a terrain for the animal which has an amazing reach after being the world’s fastest animal.
    Against a population of one lakh at the turn of the previous century, the number of cheetahs at present has come down to less than 10,000. Along with India 15 other countries witnessed the extinction of the animal in the past 60 years. Now Namibia hosts the largest population of cheetahs in the world while Asiatic cheetahs—more akin to the animal India had—survive only in Iran. There number is said to be less than 100.
    A consultative meeting held in Rajasthan’s Gajner in Bikaner earlier this month decided to entrust the job of carrying out a reconnaissance of the locations to experts from Wildlife Institute of India, Wildlife Trust of India –the NGO which initiated the process – and the State Governments of Rajasthan, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Chattisgarh.
    The consultation, attended by experts such as Stephen J. O’Brien of the Laboratory of Genomic Diversity, Laurie Marker of Cheetah Conservation Fund and M.K. Ranjitsinh, chairman Wildlife Trust of India and Divyabhanusinh Chavda, president WWF-India, in principle accepted the idea of re-introduction of the cheetah though the authorities remained cautious in their commitment.
    “Many people are thrilled about the prospect. Many are critical saying that there is no habitat available and that when India cannot protect its national animal—the tiger—why should it embark on this venture,” wondered Jairam Ramesh, Minister of State for Environment and Forests, who could not make it to the venue, in a message. “Personally I feel that we would be reclaiming a part of our wonderful and varied ecological history if the cheetah was to be reintroduced in the wild…”he said.
    Though initially the Indian side was keen on getting cheetahs from Iran, the experts advised the gathering against it. Both Dr. O ‘Brien and Dr.Marker were of the view that sourcing cheetahs from Namibia, instead of trying to get specimen from the limited population Iran, would be advisable. There is no significant difference between African and Asiatic cheetahs as both got separated only some 5,000 years back, they asserted.
    Mr.Ramesh, during a visit to Sariska tiger reserve in Rajasthan a few days back had revealed that Iran has been asking a lion in exchange for the cheetah and the deal was not likely to materialize as Gujarat would be unwilling to part with its lions. Experts are also of the view that the Iran population should be left untouched as any experiment in re-introduction in India would require at least 10 cheetahs. Moreover the nature and spread of the jungles in Namibia are said to be similar to those India with villages interspersed in between.
    Among the locations short listed as the probable habitat for cheetahs in India include Rajasthan’s Shahgarh Bulge, north west of Jaisalmer along the India-Pakistan border, Chandan, located between Pokhran and Jaisalmer and Baran Bhakar, near Jodhpur. In Gujarat the probable locations are Banni, a 2000 sq km stretch near the Rann of Kutch and Narain Sarovar sanctuary.
    Places identified in Madhya Pradesh are Sanjay Dubri sanctuary, adjoining Chattisgarh, Naura Dehi and Palpur Kuno, recommended also for re-introduction of lions. The surprise entrants in the race are Sholapur-Kolapur in Maharashtra and grasslands in Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka’s Bijapur. There are suggestions on starting a cheetah breeding centre at Gajner, which has a good ungulate presence or near Jodhpur.


    The full article can be found at http://beta.thehindu.com/news/nation...?homepage=true
    Regards,
    Bibhav Behera
    www.orissawildlife.blogspot.com

  9. #9
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    Default

    I am quoting Divyabhanusinh from his article on Cheetah where he talks of Dr Asad Rahmani and Dr MK Ranjitsinhs views on reintroduction sites.

    Divyabhanusinh writes:
    “Feers for the cheetah becoming extinct grew and the topic was debated by the Indian Board of Wildlife in 1952 and it called for ‘assigning special priority for the protection of the cheetah in central India’. In 1955, its members talked of a ‘bold experiment’ to preserve the animal, but by that time it was too late.

    The question of reintroduction of the cheetah has been discussed on and off in Government and other circles. In the 1980s, Dr Asad Rahmani, a scientist from the Bombay Natural History Society, conducted a survey for identifying sites for its possible reintroduction. Though his report was not formally made available he informed the author that in his view no suitable site was available”.

    He further mentions that “Dr MK Ranjitsinh prepared a preliminary project proposal and identified Khadir bet (island) in the Great Rann of Kutch as a possible site for reintroduction. It is 320 square kilometers in extent and is remote enough to have little interference in the monsoon. The chinkara, nilgai, wild boar, wild ass Equus hemionus, hare and peacock Pavo cristatus exist. Blackbuck are not found on the island, but the habitat is suitable and they could be introduced. Of the predator species, caracal, desert cat Felis lybica and fox Vulpes vulpes, would compete with the cheetahs on a part of their prey base. To start with cheetahs could be released in a small enclosure of say 1000 acres could support eight to ten”.

    If Iran is willing to transfer cheetahs if they get lions, then the Gujarat Govt. should agree. Great Rann of Kutch can serve as a reintroduction site for Asiatic cheetah initially.

  10. #10
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  11. #11
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    Default Reservations expressed by Ms. Maneka Gandhi

    Found this article in Hindustan Times. It states that Ms. Maneka Gandhi had raised a dissenting voice in the NTCA meeting.
    Mrudul

    Jairam-Maneka spat over cheetah
    Chetan Chauhan
    The environment ministry’s ‘in principle’ approval to relocate cheetahs from South Africa to India became a cause for a verbal duel between environment minister Jairam Ramesh and former environment minister Maneka Gandhi on Tuesday.

    This took place at the first meeting of the National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA), the regulatory body to protect tigers. Ramesh chaired the meeting, while Gandhi is a member.

    It started with Gandhi reportedly denouncing the plan to relocate cheetahs into the wild, 60 years after they went extinct from India. “It has no meaning,” she said. “When the government cannot protect endangered species like tigers, leopards and snow leopards, how can cheetahs be safe in India?”

    She also pointed out that scientifically relocation of cheetah’s was not possible.

    To this, Ramesh asked her to come up with a proposal decrying the relocation plan. “If you have some scientific data on non-possibility of long distance relocation of cheetahs, please provide it to us. We will examine it,” he said.

    In September, wildlife experts from across the world had expressed reservation on relocation of cheetahs to four sites identified by the Wildlife Trust of India, an NGO, which has sought the government’s permission to bring cheetah’s from Africa to India.

    Gandhi, however, offered her help to make Madhya Pradesh government sign a tripartite agreement with the Centre on conservation of tigers.

    The state has the largest number of tigers in India, but the big cat have vanished from Panna tiger reserve, about 350 kms north of Bhopal.

    “We will not release funds to the state for its five reserves this year unless the government signs the tripartite agreement and promises accountability in tiger conservation efforts,” a senior ministry official said.
    The source article can be found here:
    http://www.hindustantimes.com/india-...e1-462069.aspx
    Regards,
    Mrudul Godbole

  12. #12
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    “When the government cannot protect endangered species like tigers, leopards and snow leopards, how can cheetahs be safe in India?” The question was well raised by Menaka Gandhi... It is the right question to ask in this case...
    Regards,
    Bibhav Behera
    www.orissawildlife.blogspot.com

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    Default Genetic variation between African and Asiatic Cheetahs

    It seems the basis for granting the in principle approval for introducing African Cheetah in India was on the basis of Dr. Stephen J. O' Brien saying that there is no significant genetic difference between the African and the Iranian cheetah. I was told that my previous comment that the African and Indian Cheetahs are different is not right.

    In 1992 Dr. Stephen J. O’Brien had reported that the two African subspecies of cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus jubatus from southern Africa and A. jubatus raineyi from eastern Africa)
    displayed markedly reduced levels of genetic variation relative to other species. “These measurements included:
    (i) electrophoretic variation of allozymes and cell proteins resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis;
    (ii) immunological (surgical skin graft) and molecular [restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)] variation at the feline major histocompatibility (MHC) locus, one of the most polymorphic loci in mammals; and
    (iii) morphological variation of cranial characteristics. The results of each of these approaches showed that the cheetah had levels of variation comparable to that of deliberately inbred strains of laboratory mice or livestock. These studies lent support to the hypothesis that the cheetah's ancestors had survived a historic period of extensive inbreeding, the modem consequences of which are 90-99% reduction in measurable allelic variation and remarkable physiologic impairments including increased spermatozoa abnormalities, decreased fecundity,
    high infant mortality, and increased sensitivity to disease agents”.* On the basis of this study, he had even recommended breeding between the two African subspecies of Cheetah (A. jubatus jubatus and A. jubatus raineyi).

    New discovery in Genetics
    I am mentioning some latest discovery in genetics in 2006 due to the reason that our understanding of genetics is changing rapidly. I may be digressing, but I think this is important to get a perspective.

    In 2006, scientists discovered a dramatic variation in the genetic make-up of humans that caused a fundamental reappraisal of understanding of mankind. This superseded the basic principles of human genetics that we knew from the days of Gregor Mendel, and of Jim Watson and Francis Crick, who discovered the DNA double helix in 1953. It was believed that the variation between people was largely due to differences in the sequences of the individual "letters" of the genome. Now we are told that the variation is explained instead by people having multiple copies of some key genes that make up the human genome. Copy number variants (CNVs) are DNA sequences, 1,000 base pairs or larger, that are deleted, duplicated, or inverted in some individuals but not others. Several thousand CNVs have been discovered in humans, indicating that at least 4 million nucleotides of the human genome (and perhaps several times more) vary in copy number among individuals. CNVs thus represent another important class of genetic variation and contribute to at least an additional 0.1% difference, on average, between individuals.

    The findings mean that instead of humanity being 99.9 per cent identical, as previously believed, we are at least 10 times more different between one another than once thought - which could explain why some people are prone to serious diseases. It also told us that we are about 96% similar to Chimps and not the 99% that we thought earlier.

    Scientists used highly sophisticated methods of analysing large segments of DNA. Niger Carter of Sanger Institute of Cambridge had said that "In some ways the methods we have used are 'molecular microscopes', which have transformed the techniques used since the foundation of clinical genetics where researchers used microscopes to look for visible deletions and rearrangements in chromosomes.
    The study was undertaken with a sample size of 270 people.
    Our readers now would have an idea that completely mapping the genes is not an easy job. In case of the issue of climate change, we all know that lot of scientists and senior civil servants in USA had softened their stands. Before anyone says so, I would like to clarify that I am not alluding at this moment, that the scientists have given suitable comments for furthering the cause of this project. However, I would like to know whether the scientific studies about the genetic differences between Asiatic cheetah and African has been done rigorously and whether they are upto date. The methodology used including details of how many samples have been collected for this study should be made available. I am sure for the sake of transparency the detailed scientific papers are made available to the public.

    Sabyasachi

    Ref:
    * Dating the genetic bottleneck of the African cheetah
    (DNA rmgerprint/mtDNA)
    MARILYN MENOTTI-RAYMOND* AND STEPHEN J. O'BRIEN
    *Biological Carcinogenesis and Development Program and tLaboratory of Viral Carcinogenesis, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD 21702
    Communicated by Bruce Wallace, October 29, 1992

  14. #14
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    Default Transporting Cheetah and other charismatic cats over long distances

    Maneka Gandhi is supposed to have said that scientifically relocation of cheetah’s was not possible.

    Dr R L Eaton, who had worked on charismatic species like Cheetah was of the view that these animals should not be transported.

    I am also quoting the impact on tigers from a paper by Dembiec, D.P, Snider, R.J and Zanella, A.J. (2004) in the paper “The effects of transport stress on tiger Physiology and behaviour”, Zoo Biology.

    "Tigers are often transported for education, conservation, and zoo enhancement purposes, however the effect of transfer on them has not yet been documented. Our objective was to evaluate how transport affects the behavior and physiology of tigers, taking into account previous experience with the transport procedure.

    We simulated transport by relocating five tigers in a small individual transfer cage. Two tigers had prior experience with the procedure, and three tigers were naive to it. After 30 min, each tiger was released back into their original enclosure. Physiological measurements were recorded for four of the five tigers; these included respiration rate and immune-reactive fecal cortisol response using radioimmunoassay. We also recorded the behavior of all five tigers before, during, and after transport. Our behavioral analysis included activity level, pacing behavior, time spent investigating, respiration rate, and ear position. Average respiration rates of all tigers increased from 56.1 breaths/min to 94.6 breaths/min during transport and to 132.3 breaths/min 10 min following release into their enclosures. Average immune-reactive cortisol concentrations peaked 3-6 days after transport at 239% above baseline and returned to baseline levels 9-12 days afterward. During their peak time block, naive tigers exhibited a higher average increase in cortisol levels (482% above baseline) than the experienced tigers (158% above baseline). The naive tigers\' average immune-reactive cortisol concentration remained elevated for a longer period (9-12 days) than the experienced tigers\' (3-6 days). In both groups, behavioral responses ranged from active to inactive, however naive tigers performed these repertoires with greater intensity by pacing faster and performing fewer state changes. Results suggest that prior exposure to elements of the transport procedure may lead to some level of habituation, thus reducing the effects of transportation stress. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc".


    It should be noted that the above experiment was done in a zoo. And it didn't entail transcontinent relocation.

    Sabyasachi

  15. #15
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    Default Will cheetahs roam in in Indian jungles again?

    An article on the Cheetah issue.

    New Delhi – After a gap of 60 years, cheetahs may make a comeback in Indian jungles with three potential African nations giving a nod to the idea of trans-locating the animal in this country.

    After a week-end visit to Cape Town to take part in a climate change meeting, India's Environment and Forest Minister Jairam Ramesh says the African cheetah could be brought to India within the next three years.

    “We have zeroed in on South Africa, Namibia and Kenya and we are talking to all of them…So I took this opportunity to visit the Cheetah Outreach near Cape Town,” says Ramesh said.

    “The South Africans have the best technical expertise,” he added.

    “South Africa is willing to give cheetahs to India,” Ramesh said. “Now, we have the option of getting the animals from South Africa, Kenya and Namibia,” he added.

    The cheetah is the only large mammal to become extinct in India in the last millennium, according to Ramesh, who is on a mission to reintroduce the animal in central India — even though the tiger lobby in India is skeptical about the idea.

    “They say 'if you can't look after the tiger, how will you protect the cheetah?',” Ramesh said. “I believe that just as the tiger is a symbol of the forest habitat, the cheetah symbolises our vanishing grasslands…It's a valuable icon.”

    The Wildlife Institute of India is spearheading the project, and will unveil a road map and destination for the African cheetahs — possible options are in Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat.

    The minister said that by May this year the ministry will have a detailed survey on feasibility of re-introduction of cheetahs in the country.

    The survey, that will form the basis for the roadmap, is being carried out by the Wildlife Institute of India (WII), located in Dehra Dun city, in collaboration with the Wildlife Trust of India (WTI), the Bombay Natural History Society (BNHS) and the state governments concerned, reports in the Indian media said.

    "The survey is being conducted in six locations - three in Madhya Pradesh, two in Rajasthan and one in Gujarat," Ramesh has been quoted as saying.

    The environment ministry last year gave the go-ahead to draft a detailed roadmap for the Cheetah Re-introduction Project, proposed by the WTI, and endorsed by wildlife experts.

    On the sidelines of the just-concluded climate change meet in Cape Town, India and South Africa — the two countries on Monday released a joint statement, pledging support to tackle climate change as part of the BASIC (Brazil, South Africa, India and China) group — also discussed re-introduction of cheetahs in this country.

    After a meeting between Environment Minister Jairam Ramesh and his South African counterpart Buyelwa Sonjica, the latter has consented to part with cheetahs, extinct in Indian forests, for the re-introduction program, reports in the Indian media said.

    The western Indian state of Gujarat, the home to the Asiatic lions, has also says it is keen on reintroducing Asiatic-type cheetahs from Iran in its jungles..

    S.K. Nanda, Principal Secretary, Forests and Environment of the Gujarat state government, has been quoted by the Hindu newspaper last week as saying that that Iran was the only country where the Asiatic cheetahs were still found.

    But the problem is that the numbers in Iran too had dwindled to less than a hundred.

    It was highly unlikely that Iran would agree to part with the animals, but “we are still making efforts to save the animals from becoming extinct,” according to Nanda.

    Pradeep Khanna, Gujarat state Principal Chief Conservator of Forests, said the state had managed to get two pairs of African cheetahs and kept them in the Sakkarbagh zoo in Junagadh district for breeding in captivity. But “it is a very shy species, so far showing no signs of breeding.”

    He did not indicate when the local government got the animals and from which nation in Africa.

    The last cheetah in the wild was said to have been shot in the Reva area of Madhya Pradesh state in the 1940s.

    Taken from http://www.earthtimes.org/articles/s...les-again.html
    Regards,
    Bibhav Behera
    www.orissawildlife.blogspot.com

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    Some news update on Cheetah reintroduction.

    Habitat on Cheetah's habitat soon: Ramesh PTI
    Jaipur, June 26, 2010


    Government is in talks with Rajasthan, Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh to provide a proper habitat for the Cheetah to be translocated from Africa and the location will be finalised in the next two-three weeks.

    "We have not yet decided the place or the state where Cheetah wil be translocated. It will be decided only after a habitat study report of the the Wildlife Institute of India (WII) (is submitted) which we are expecting in the next two three weeks," Ramesh told reporters on the sidelines of public discussion on Green India Mission.

    He said that Centre was in talks with Rajathan, Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh governments.

    "I am in touch with the three state governments as the project will be completed with their support," he said, adding, that talks with the countries from where the Cheetah will be brought will also proceed after a decision is taken on the location.

    Cheetah, the world's fastest animal, became extinct in the country some 60 years ago and the government plans to reintroduce it.

    Meanwhile, the fourth public discussion on effective and successful implementation of Green India Mission, one of the eight Missions under country's National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC), attracted wide ranging suggestions including maximum involvement of women and coordination among departments like animal husbandry, agriculture, forest, departments and NGOs.

    A woman participant said in that agricultural sector provides livelihood to a number of women in the country, so maximum such women must be involved in the mission.

    "Forest department should conduct training for women for successful implementation of the mission at grassroots level," she said at the consultation organised at Indira Gandhi Panchayati Raj Sansthan.

    Others suggested amendments in land revenue act and other regulations claiming this would help and motivate farmers to go with the mission and supplement their financial needs as well.

    Representatives from various organisations, NGOs, government departments, retired government officials participated in the discussion.

    The mission aims at addressing climate change by enhancing carbon sinks in sustainable managed forests and other ecosystems, enhancing the resilience and ability of vulnerable species/ecosystems to adapt to the changing climate, and enabling the adaption of forest dependant local communities in the face of climatic variability.

    Link - http://indiatoday.intoday.in/site/St...on-ramesh.html
    Regards,
    Mrudul Godbole

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    Default

    This point has been iterated loads of times and I would say it again. It is foolish of the MoEF to digress its focus from conserving the already present endangered and threatened species than introducing species which might not even adapt to the Indian conditions.
    Why not spend the money on the conservation of the Tigers, Leopards, Bustards and the Elephants of the Country?
    Regards,
    Bibhav Behera
    www.orissawildlife.blogspot.com

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    Default Cheetah rerun

    A view on african cheetah introduction.


    Cheetah rerun
    Nitin Sethi, TNN, Jul 30, 2010, 08.28am IST

    More than six decades after the last cheetah disappeared from India - the only mammal the country has lost in a long time - the government has decided to reintroduce the fastest one.

    The experts and the government have proffered few reasons why the spotted cat should be brought back. It's the only mammal whose name is derived from Sanskrit, for one. It will help preserve the grasslands and drylands in India, for another. The first is easily dismissed as posturing but the second reason is worth a serious look.

    On any count, it's going to be a costly affair. Experts have suggested a ballpark figure of Rs 300 crore to be spent in the first year itself.

    The cheetah sites will require constant money flow through the life of the project (read: endlessly). Much of the initial money is going to be spent on relocating more than 100 human habitations in the three sites where the experts want to set free the first set of imported cats.

    The wildlife enthusiasts want to play down the trade-offs: the cheetah is bound to become the conservation star that turns grasslands and drylands into exclusive preserves just as the tiger had for decades in the forested parts of the country. Some of the settlements to be relocated are temporary – used by grazers – the cheetah enthusiasts point out.

    That the temporary settlements are traditional livelihood sources for many in the arid Jaisalmer is yet to be discussed. In another site (Kuno-Palpur in Madhya Pradesh) many have been uprooted and displaced under controversial circumstances to bring in the lion, so relocating a few more villages shouldn't be difficult, they say.

    To be fair, the cheetah enthusiasts have recommended "adequate and generous compensation with alternate arrangements" for those displaced. But in a country where most of the existing national parks and sanctuaries, including tiger reserves, were created at a time when traditional rights of people living in the forests were summarily dismissed, is yet another symbol of exclusivist conservation required? Almost every tiger reserve and dozens of national parks and sanctuaries continue to be battlefields between displaced local population and the forest department, with rights of the poor unresolved.

    The UPA, under Sonia Gandhi, has been trying hard to restore these rights and correct a historical injustice that the government itself claims is one of the causes of alienation of forestdwellers.

    Experts suggest the spillovers of tourism from the cheetah will provide livelihood to those displaced.

    Five-star hotels at the edges of tiger reserves that earn Rs 40,000 a night showing off cordoned tigers to foreign tourists while the locals run tea shops or get employed as daily labour, one would think, would have taught the government a lesson.

    Link - http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/h...ow/6235374.cms
    Regards,
    Mrudul Godbole

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    Default leave nature undisturbed

    Its better not to fool around with nature. We should abandon this cheetah relocation project.

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    Default Letter written by the Minister MoEF to CM Rajasthan

    Sharing the text of the letter written by Shri Jairam Ramesh, to the CM of Rajasthan on Cheetah relocation.
    Sabyasachi


    30th July, 2010
    My dear Ashokji,

    As you are aware, the cheetah is the only large Indian animal that we have lost since Independence. They also occurred in Rajasthan in the past. I am sure you and the state of Rajasthan would be as keen to bring back this lost natural heritage of India. The reintroduction of the cheetah would not just be restoration of a lost species, but also a restoration of some of our degraded but invaluable ecosystems and the varied fauna and flora dependent upon them. Of all the large cats, the cheetah would cause the least conflict with people, as there is no record whatsoever of a cheetah ever causing injury to humans and they do not attack cattle.

    The Ministry of Environment & Forests had commissioned a special study of ten sites in four states, to ascertain the feasibility of cheetah reintroduction. The report of this investigation has clearly indicated that cheetah can be reintroduced at three sites – Kuna-Palpur in Madhya Pradesh, the southern Shahgarh landscape in the western part of the Jaisalmar district of Rajasthan on the border with Pakistan, in the area also known as Shahgarh bulge and Nauradehi, also in Madhya Pradesh.

    The western and southern flaks of this Shahgarh bulge have been fenced off along the international border and the area is totally under the control of the BSF. The area being a desert covered with sand dunes and some vegetation, there is no agriculture. There are, however, settlements called Dhanis which are occupied seasonally by nomadic pastoralists who graze sheep and goats, and who occupy these Dhanis for a part of the year. They also move out when the army and the BSF want them to do so. As the western and southern sides of this bulge has already been fenced off, it is proposed to fence off the eastern and the northern sides, whereby a large area could be secured, the vegetation including grass could be allowed to regenerate and the cheetah would not be able to go out to raid the small stock of the shepherds. The nomadic shepherds could be given alternate sides outside the fenced off area where large tracts are still available on the north-eastern side and where bore-wells could also be provided. The shepherds could be given the same generous package as is given under Project Tiger. Every effort has been made to exclude large human habitations from the proposed enclosed area and a more detailed survey would be made to ensure that there is the least possible conflict of interests, while delineating the periphery of the proposed fencing. The mining for gas or oil would not be hampered and there would be no curtailment of the patrolling activities of the armed forces. In fact, these agencies would be part of the joint venture. The introduction of the cheetah would be a substantial addition to the tourist attractions in Jaisalmar district.

    The entire cost of the cheetah reintroduction project would be borne by the Ministry of Environment and Forests.

    I would, therefore, request you to kindly agree in principle to the proposal of cheetah introduction in the southern Shahgarh landscape of Jaisalmar district, so that we could go ahead with the preparation of more detailed plans for reintroduction, which would be prepared in collaboration with representatives of your State Government. If you so wish, I could request Dr. Ranjitsinh, a retired IAS officer and Dr. Divyabhanusinh Chavda to meet you and your officers to explain the project in greater detail. In the meanwhile, I am herewith forwarding the report on the feasibility of cheetah reintroduction, for your perusal.

    With regards,

    Yours Sincerely,
    (Jairam Ramesh)

    The original letter can be viewed here: http://www.moef.nic.in/downloads/pub...%20Cheetah.pdf

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    Some more update..

    MP forest dept wants to translocate antelopes to Palpur Kuno
    PTI, Dec 19, 2010, 04.49pm IST

    BHOPAL: With a huge rise in endangered blackbuck population in Madhya Pradesh, the state forest department wants to translocate 1000 Indian antelopes to Palpur Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary, where its chief predator the Cheetah is proposed to be re-introduced in India.

    "We have sent a proposal to the Centre seeking permission and funds to translocate 1000 blackbucks in Palpur Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary spread over an area of 300 sq km in Sheopur district where the Cheetahs are going to be re-introduced in India," Madhya Pradesh forest minister Sartaj Singh said.

    Blackbuck population has witnessed a tremendous increase and now these animals with twisted horns were entering fields. Farmers are complaining that their crops were being damaged by the Indian antelopes, he said.

    "We have blackbuck in the entire state and we want 1000 of these to be translocated in Palpur Kuno," he said.

    He said that the work of shifting blackbucks and Cheetah can go simultaneously.

    Singh said that Cheetah were very fond of preying on these mammals.

    About Cheetah, he said that the first pack of it from South Africa will reach Palpur Kuno in the next winter.


    News at: http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/h...#ixzz18jrGm5EM
    Regards,
    Mrudul Godbole

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    Sharing an article published in The Pioneer. It quotes a paper published in Molecular Ecology that the African Cheetah is genetically different from the extinct Asiatic Cheetah. This confirms what I have been saying all along that African Cheetah was never a part of this landscape and hence should not be relocated to India.
    Sabyasachi


    Cheetah reintroduction programme genetically flawed
    May 30, 2011 11:53:30 AM

    Moushumi Basu | New Delhi

    Molecular Ecology article questions MOEF project

    An esteemed international journal, Molecular Ecology, has kicked off a debate on the ambitious `300-crore Cheetah reintroduction programme of the Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF) to revive these gravely endangered Asiatic grassland predators.

    A paper published in the latest issue of the journal states that African Cheetahs are genetically very different from their Asian counterpart. The findings of the report have raised questions about the success of the Cheetah reintroduction programme.

    “Is it to increase the population of exotic Cheetahs in Indian grasslands (which already exists in abundance) or is it aimed at rejuvenating their Asiatic counterparts to which India was once a home?” asks an expert.

    The article, “Phylogeography, genetic structure and population divergence time of cheetahs in Africa and Asia: evidence for long-term geographic isolates”, based on genetic studies of both the species of the cheetahs has been written by Pauline Charruau. It states, “Asiatic cheetahs are unambiguously separated from African subspecies “divergence time estimates… place the split… at 32,000-67,000 years ago”.

    Cheetahs are critically endangered in their Asiatic range, where the last 70-110 individuals survive only in Iran. We demonstrate that these extant Iranian cheetahs are the last representatives of the Asiatic subspecies, the report said.

    “The basic objective of the much-hyped project was to revive this last surviving Asiatic subspecies and in the process our grassland ecology,” pointed out Dr Pramod Patil, grassland conservationist. After the publication of the paper and proven genetic dissimilarity between the two sub-species, it is baffling why the MOEF is still pushing for the Cheetah reintroduction programme.

    The African sub-species are not threatened; they exist in good numbers, what is the point in “importing” 18 of these exotic animals and raise them on Indian grasslands? he questioned. He further pointed out that the Asiatic sub-species are not known to breed in captivity, and if the same holds good for African species then the programme is not likely to be successful.

    To add to it, as per the article Cheetahs are genetically weak species. One cannot rule out the possibilities of inbreeding among the 18 South African Cheetahs, which would lead to further weakening of species.

    “The objective is certainly not clear, what purpose would it solve,” shot back conservation biologist Dharmendra Khandal. He further pointed out that as per the claims of Pakistan there are chances of the presence of Cheetah there. It is said that till 1997-98, Asiatic Cheetahs from Iran and Afghanistan must have crossed as far as Pakistan border.

    The proposed site at Shahgarh in Jaisalmer (Rajasthan) is not very far away considering that these animals are prone to crossing territories. “This would definitely cause ‘genetic pollution’ of these endangered Asiatic sub species,” he pointed out.

    Dr Patil further pointed out that even if Cheetahs are brought to the country “where is the conservation policy for grasslands”. India has the highest livestock population in the world, one can thus imagine the tremendous grazing pressure on the grassland. The Ministry should come up with a National Grazing policy if the grasslands are to be protected, he added.

    Further, there is already protest amongst local people in Madhya Pradesh against the decision, hence reintroduction of Cheetahs could open a new chapter on human-wild life conflict. Without local support it is not possible to release cheetah into the wild.

    Harping on similar lines, former PCCF MP, PM Lad, said, “The prospects of survival of genetically alien cheetahs here is very bleak, what is the ultimate purpose, I fail to understand.” In fact a senior forest officer declined to accept the responsibilities as Project in-charge for similar reasons, he said.

    However, Wildlife expert MK Ranjitsinh, who is pioneering the Cheetah Project in the country, said, “We would definitely go ahead with the project.” He denied the fact that Iranian Cheetahs do not breed in captivity, and pointed out that they would be releasing the Cheetahs in the wild.

    “I am very hopeful on the success of the project. The return of the cheetah would make India the only country in the world to have six of the world’s eight large cats and the only one to have all the large cats of Asia,” he added.

    The source article can be found here: Object reference not set to an instance of an object.

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    Namibian cheetahs coming to MP
    New Delhi, January 22, 2012

    Don’t book that ticket to Africa yet to see the fastest animal on Earth —the cheetah. It’s going to be coming from Namibia to Madhya Pradesh in the next one year.
    The environment and forests ministry is set to clear the import of the African cheetah to Kuno Palpur, 210 km from
    Gwalior, despite reservations from some wildlife experts.
    India saw the last cheetah in the wild shot dead 64 years ago in Sarguja, Chhattisgarh.

    In all, three locations — two in MP and one in Rajasthan — are to get 18 cheetahs. A team of experts from Namibia, including Lorrie Marker, a cheetah conservationist, approved the landscape spread nearly 345 square kilometre for India’s most ambitious species-introduction project.

    “Re-introduction of the cheetah in wild can protect our neglected grasslands,” said a top ministry official, while rejecting opposition from experts such as the director-general of forest, PJ Dalip Kumar, who believes the project would be ecologically unviable.

    Wildlife biologist Faiyaz Khudsar points out that there won’t be enough prey in the area to support a sizable cheetah population.

    But Marker and other experts involved in the project believe there are adequate ecological factors to support the wild cats.

    Cheetahs have been relocated within Africa but not outside the continent, leading to apprehension whether the animal would adjust to the new climate and habitat.

    But a recent study has shown that about 30,000 to 70,000 years ago cheetahs from Africa migrated to Asia creating a sub species — the Asiatic cheetah — before their rapid decline in the last century.

    Apprehensions of transporting the cats by air were put to rest by MK Ranjit Sinh, former MP forest secretary, who said that flying for a few hours will make no difference to the animal. Tiger conservationist Valmik Thapar said that the environment ministry should put India's wildlife system in order first, before introducing new species.
    Regards,
    Mrudul Godbole

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    For once, I do not know if one should be delighted that there is some attempt at conservation or be depressed by the fact that this attempt seems to defy logic.

    After seeing through the major chunk of discussion that has happened here at Indiawilds, I wish to pray that the effort of bringing the African Cheetah to India, where they do not belong, will be halted.

    Cheers
    Bhargava

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    I shall be thankful if any of our esteemed members who had visited Kanha T.R. recently enlighten us about the the latest status of the project for reintroduction of Blackbucks in Kanha Tiger Reserve after the reported death of a few during tranportation.
    SaktiWild.

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    Default Supreme Court Stays Cheetah Import

    The Hon'ble Supreme Court of India has stayed the African Cheetah reintroduction project. A bench comprising Justices K S Radhakrishnan and C K Prasad while conducting the hearing of relocation of Asiatic Lions from Gujrat to Kuno in MP restrained the Government from implementing the project. The amicus curiae P S Narasimha had filed an application seeking a stay of the introdcution of African Cheetah. The Hon'ble Supreme court is of the view that proper approvals were not taken from the NBW (National Board for Wildlife). It also opined that import of these cheetahs will not help in conservation in anyway, therefore the project is being stayed.

    Three Cheers for Supreme Court!

    Sabyasachi

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    Default

    Good news! Hope the 'Tughlaqs' behind the concept come to their senses now

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    Default Centre seeks Supreme Court nod to bring cheetah

    Centre seeks Supreme Court nod to bring cheetah
    New Delhi, Wed Sep 19 2012, 06:02 hrs

    Four months ago, the court stayed proposed move to get cheetah from Namibia

    Asserting that an opinion of the National Board for Wildlife was only “advisory” in nature and “not mandatory,” the Centre on Tuesday urged the Supreme Court to lift its four-month-old stay on implementation of the Cheetah Reintroduction Programme, through which the Ministry of Environment and Forests sought to get the feline from Africa.

    In an affidavit filed in pursuant to the court’s May 8 stay order, the MoEF has refuted the proposition that the NBW’s opinion was a legal requirement — one of the prime contentions that had led the court order. “The NBW is primarily an advisory body to the Government of India on matters relating to wildlife, as mandated under the Wildlife (Protection) Act. Section 5C or any other provision of the Act does not make the opinion of the NBW mandatory for the government to take a considered decision on management and conservation of wildlife based on scientific information,” stated the affidavit.

    It added that the proposal regarding reintroduction of cheetah was placed before the NBW in March 2010 and none of its members had raised any objection to it nor had they sought a discussion during the subsequent meetings.

    A Forest Bench had restrained the government from going ahead with its project following objections over lack of positive opinion from the NBW, expected expenditure, prey base, and other aspects relating to the feasibility study.

    The issue of relocating cheetah from Namibia came up during a hearing on reintroduction of Asiatic lions from Gujarat’s Gir National Park to Kuno Sanctuary in Madhya Pradesh. The affidavit, submitted by government’s counsel S W A Qadri has sought permission to reintroduce the extinct species in its historical range, claiming cheetah and lions have historical coexistence in the proposed area.

    “It will be ensured that the cheetah reintroduction in Kuno would in no way be allowed to delay and affect the lion reintroduction therein,” the MoEF undertook.
    Regards,
    Mrudul Godbole

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