IndiaWilds Newsletter Vol. 10 Issue II

IndiaWilds Newsletter Vol. 10 Issue II

ISSN 2394 – 6946

Download the full Newsletter PDF by clicking the below button –
IndiaWilds Newsletter-February-2018 (5.7 MB, 280 downloads)

Cauvery Water Dispute and Environment:

IndiaWilds Newsletter - Feb 2018

IndiaWilds Newsletter – Feb 2018

The Cauvery water dispute between the states of Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Pondicherry has been finally adjudicated upon by the Hon’ble Supreme Court of India. As expected the mainstream print and electronic media highlighted that Tamil Nadu’s share of water has been reduced. And then the news quickly went on the backburner. Of course, when massive financial scams come to light, the attention gets diverted. Nevertheless, it is time for us to look into this incident, as this is Independent India’s biggest river water sharing dispute and it has ecological connotations.

There was an agreement between the erstwhile Mysore ruler and the Madras presidency during the British era. The agreement was supposed to be only for a period for 50 years but has continued till date with modifications done by a tribunal order till the Supreme Court gave its order this month.

The primary bone of contention between the warring states is that enough water is not available for agriculture, drinking water requirements of people and livestock.

The arguments that were put forth by the lawyers representing the four states shows how little the various State Governments think about environment and ecology. The river is simply seen as a giant pipeline where water flows. It is not seen as a living entity.

The Tamilnadu Govt. while arguing before the Tribunal about the water requirement of Pondichery had argued that the water needed for environmental and ecology needs for Pondicherry is 0.000 TMC. The Zero TMC figure is not a typographical error. This clearly shows that the Government, at least a State Government, only cares for people, livestock and industries and is not concerned about the well being of the river in particular.

The following table was provided by Tamil Nadu Government regarding water requirement of Pondicherry:

Serial No. Sector  Area in Lakh acres  Water required in TMC
1 2 3 4
A Domestic and Livestock need 0.356
B Environmental/Ecological Needs 0.000
C Irrigation requirement for the area under Priority – I to IV 0.430 6.840
D Industrial & Power 0.070
Total 0.430 7.266


Though they didn’t care for environment and ecological needs of Pondicherry, the Tamil Nadu counsel Mr. Shekhar Naphade had asked for water for maintaining the ecology and ecosystem in and around the river when his turn came for claiming more water from Karnataka.

He submitted that “Karnataka could not ask for 5 TMC water out of the 10 TMC which had been allotted to Tamil Nadu towards environmental needs. He submitted that a certain minimum flow of the river had to be maintained to keep the river free flowing as set out in the National Water Policy, 2002. Such natural flow could not be considered as wastage as it was essential for maintaining the ecology and ecosystem in and around the river. He also submitted that as regards the allegation that 88 TMC of water was going into the sea and being wasted, there were several factors to consider in that regard and that Tamil Nadu was taking utmost care to ensure that no wastage occurred. A certain minimum standard of outflow had to be maintained to prevent erosion, reduce salt water intrusion and to maintain marine life and bio diversity. Further, the topography of the Delta region was such that no viable storage area could be built to conserve this water. He submitted that the North-East monsoons, being erratic, would result in heavy showers, not all of which could be conserved.” (page 379-380, Supreme Court Verdict on Cauvery Water Dispute)

Despite all these dubious arguments, the tribunal in its order allocated 10 TMC water for environmental protection for Pondicherry. Interestingly the cauvery tribunal had also allocated 4 TMC to Pondicherry under a category called “Inevitable escapages to the Sea”. Looks like if they would have had their way, they would have sucked out every drop of water from the river

It is pertinent to mention that when the water level of the river flowing to the sea is less, there is more ingress of seawater and salinity increases. A lot of lands can become uncultivable. Even Pondicherry had mentioned in their submission that they need a certain amount of water to flush out the salinity.

The Hon’ble Supreme Court in its judgment retained the 10 TNC water for Pondicherry as decided earlier by the tribunal. The logic of the Supreme Court is interesting read:

 On the aspect of allocation qua environmental protection, the Tribunal, in order to secure the purity of environmental and ecological regime in view of the injudicious use of available resources by human beings compounded by population explosion and distorted lifestyles and having regard to the spectre of river water pollution on account of industrial development and deforestation leading to siltation of reservoirs, etc., assigned 10 TMC to be reserved from the common pool to meet the environmental aspects.

We appreciate the endeavour and the initiative of the Tribunal having regard to the sustenance of purity of environment to which every individual is entitled and also simultaneously obliged to contribute to cultivate the feeling of environmental morality. That is the constant need of the present. In view of such an obtaining situation, we are not inclined to interfere in any manner in the allocation of the quantum of 10 TMC towards environmental protection. It stands affirmed.” (Page 446-447)

The Hon’ble Supreme Court rightly mentions the key points in a very succinct manner. Much of India’s problems have arisen out of the unrestrained population explosion. India’s population in 1951 was only 36 crores but it skyrocketed to 121 crores by the 2011 census and is now more than 130 crores. The population density consequently has increased from 78 people per sq km in 1901 to 382 persons/ in 2011. And in major cities and flood plains the population density is even more. Bangalore in Karnataka which is grappling with drinking water problem and wanted more water has a population density of 4381/sq. km.

When the Hon’ble Supreme Court talks about “sustenance of purity of environment to which every individual is entitled and also simultaneously obliged to contribute to cultivate the feeling of environmental morality” it immediately shows that finally the apex court is taking a strong stand. Soon we may get purity of environment as a fundamental right. In Delhi, the air is so polluted for the last few years that there have been several petitions in the Supreme Court. So the Supreme Court judges are aware of how bad the environmental situation is.

India’s constitution has two articles that emphasises the responsibilities of the State as well as its people in protecting nature and all living beings in this country. Article 48A of our constitution under Directive Principles of State Policy states “The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and safeguard the forests and wildlife of the country”. The Article 48A hopefully with some nudge or direction from the Supreme Court will get upgraded to a Fundamental right inform of Purity of Environment.

Article 51A (g) of the Constitution under Fundamental Duties states “Fundamental duty of every citizen to protect and improve the natural environment, including forests, lakes, rivers and wildlife and to have compassion for living creatures”. The Hon’ble Supreme Court appears to be referring to this as environmental morality of the citizens who are obliged to contribute to saving the environment.

Interestingly, the judgment of the Supreme Court also strikes down the tribunal order which had decided that only 1/3rd of Bangalore which is in the Cauvery basin will get water and not the other 2/3rd. “The Tribunal had drastically reduced the share of Karnataka towards Domestic and Industrial purpose for the reason being that only 1/3rd of the city of Bengaluru falls within the river basin and also on the presumption that 50% of the drinking water requirement would be met from ground water supply. The said view taken by the Tribunal ignores the basic principle pertaining to drinking water and is, thus unsustainable. Keeping in mind the global status that the city has attained, an addition of 4.75 TMC is awarded to Karnataka.”

Supreme Court had earlier rightly said that there is injudicious use of available resources by human beings compounded by population explosion and distorted lifestyles and having regard to the spectre of river water pollution on account of industrial development and deforestation leading to siltation of reservoirs.

Earlier Bangalore had many lakes. However, those lakes are now silted and full of affluents from nearby housing societies and industries making them unfit for any human use. The waters of some of the lakes have become extremely toxic and the froth at times overflows and endangers people staying close by. So obviously the city has to depend on the Cauvery water. Bangalore has become a global hub because of which the Supreme Court allocated more water. However, while allocating more water to tide over the current problem, the Hon’ble Supreme Court could have done well to point out that all the lakes in Bangalore are dead due to siltation, dumping of wastes and debris, illegal construction, illegal untreated sewage from housing societies and industrial wastes pollution. There is no disincentive for the Karnataka Government to force them to rectify their problems and revitalize their reservoirs.

Our big cities are growing bigger and bigger. Whereas the Hon’ble Supreme Court mentions population explosion, it should have also asked the Governments for ensuring that every part of the State or Country has equitable development. When industries and job creation is concentrated around our big cities, they grow even bigger and there is lot of migration of people from villages and smaller towns. Today the Governments don’t even think of spreading development across the country or State. When there is unrestrained growth of cities, it is natural that there has to be more water taken from rivers through canals after constructing dams. So water wars are going to be a permanent feature. Supreme Court should have insisted on rain water harvesting in full blown scale while giving water to Bangalore because at the moment the rain water harvesting norms are for buildings that are on 60×40 feet plots and cover some 55000 houses. New constructions measuring 30 feet by 40 feet will also adhere to the norm. However, this only covers a small portion of the population as the houses constructed before 2008 are exempted. The Government has to do more.

It is our belief that no water should be diverted from the rivers. If a city cannot be self-sustainable in terms of water then it has to be forced to stop growing. Even the existing amount of water given to Bangalore won’t be sufficient given the pace at which it is growing. So water wars are going to be a permanent feature in the future.

On Ground water extraction the Supreme Court has said:

While exploring the possibility of ground water as an additional source to be conjunctively used along with the surface flow of river Cauvery, the factual matrix reveals, based on empirical data, that the contributions thereto are from surface water through infiltration into the ground by way of natural recharge, stream flow, lakes and reservoirs. The recharge of ground water is principally from rainfall as well as artificial modes, namely, application of water to irrigate crops, flooding of areas caused by overflowing of streams to their sites and seepage from unlined canals, tanks and other sources..……..It is in this context that the assertion made on behalf of Karnataka that ground water being a renewable resource, if not extracted regularly, would reduce the absorption capacity of the underlying aquifer resulting in rain water/surface water turning into wastage as run-off and that the admission of Tamil Nadu in its pleadings of availability of 30/47 TMC as ground water warranted reduction of at least 20 TMC, as estimated by the Tribunal, from the final allocated share of Tamil Nadu with proportionate reduction in the quantum of water to be provided by Karnataka at the inter-state border, assumes significance. In our view, having regard to the overwhelming empirical data following multiple research studies by different authorities authenticating beyond doubt availability of replenishable ground water in the Delta areas of Tamil Nadu, 20 TMC of ground water quantified by the Tribunal is an eminently safe quantity to be accounted for in finally allocating/apportioning the share of Cauvery water. While expressing this view, we are not unmindful of the stand of Tamil Nadu and the aspect that over-extraction of ground water in the absence of adequate replenishment and further in the areas proximate to the coastal zone is generally avoidable”. (page 436-437)

The problem with this is that the various State Governments have used the ground water as an alibi to demand higher allocation of Cauvery water for themselves or ask for reduction in water quota of another state. Ground water is just a tool and nothing else. So they only claim that the ground water is being replenished by the cauvery water seeping in or flooding on the plains etc. The State Governments are never known to be serious about groundwater level. No one ever has heard of ground water level measurements in important places every year and tracking the replenishment levels. Rain water harvesting is virtually non-existent in most of our cities and towns. In some places new rainwater harvesting norms have come in but those are two little and too late. In view of the rampant concretization the ability of the rainwater to percolate has tremendously reduced. Else, we would not have seen the massive flooding in Chennai in 2017. The Hon’ble Supreme Court have not passed on any instructions on how the groundwater is going to be replenished. Wish it had done so.

So what will Tamil Nadu do now?

As such the the Cauvery Fact Finding Committee required restriction on double crop paddy area; introduction of short duration variety in place of ―Samba‖ crop and preference to crops needing less water. Karnataka Government will bow to popular pressures and will not release water every month as per the Supreme Court. In the past it had happened and Supreme Court had chosen not to haul up the State Government. So this scenario is likely to happen in future. So the Tamil Nadu Government has to first undertake massive rainwater harvesting exercise. It has to make the farmers aware about the need to grow traditional crops which require less water instead of water guzzling cash crops. The Government has to also be serious in implementing the drip irrigation technologies which are more water efficient.

Tamil Nadu’s former Chief Minister Jayalalithaa used to promote tree plantations. The various State Governments have to promote massive native tree plantation programmes in the various Government and other lands. This is more likely to help in rainfall, albeit in different areas. The tree plantation will also help in percolation of rainwater and any surface water flow which will recharge the water table.

The various State Governments have to focus on revitalising the lakes. In the earlier era Kings used to construct lakes based on the topography of the areas to capture and store water. With Climate Change induced droughts becoming a norm in many parts of the world, it is imperative that the various Governments look for simple yet sustainable solutions.


Photographing Wildlife in India

by T. N. A. Perumal

Wildlife photography has an universal appeal because the caveman’s instinct of sketching the animals, feared by him, hunted by him and loved by him, is in all of us. Also, it is a creative and artistic expression of man, and his natural “Hunting instinct” to outwit an animal, and it is also the manifestation of the great ecological bond between man, animal and Nature. This tie of relationship gets renewed, strengthened and broadened by one’s quest for capturing the images of our fauna and flora in our wild places.

To read more from the book click the below link –

Photographing Wildlife in India


Obituary: Professor Ratan Lal Brahmachary (1932-2018)

By Shubhobroto Ghosh

Professor Ratan Lal Brahmachary, distinguished biochemist and a pioneer of tiger pheromone studies in India, died in the early hours of the morning of 13 February 2018 in a nursing home in Kolkata, India. He was 86 years old.

Born in Dhaka in Bangladesh in 1932, Ratan Lal Brahmachary was enamoured with wild life and adventure in African jungle since his childhood.  He was an astrophysicist by training and a student of eminent Indian theoretical physicist, Satyendra Nath Bose. His studies were undertaken at Calcutta, Dhaka and Hamburg.

Read more by clicking the below link –

Obituary: Professor Ratan Lal Brahmachary


Conservation News:

All-India Tiger Estimation 2018 to be Hi-Tech, More Accurate and Precise

The All-India Tiger Estimation, 2018 exercise promises not just to be hi-tech, but will also be far more accurate and precise than ever before. In an interactive session with mediapersons here today, officers from National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) and scientists from Wildlife Institute of India explained how the current assessment uses Android phone-based application and desktop version of M-STrIPES (Monitoring System for Tigers-Intensive Protection and Ecological Status) for collecting, archiving and analyzing data.  The phone application automatically records the track log of surveys and line transects, as well as authenticates the recorded data on signs and animal sightings with geo-tagged photographs.  With increased camera trap density and the use of android technology, estimates arrived at are likely to be more robust – both in terms of accuracy and precision.  This becomes evident from the fact that compared to the exercise conducted in the year 2006, when 9, 700 cameras were put up, the 2018 Estimation will use nearly 15, 000 cameras.  It was also pointed out that it is not possible to count the photograph of every tiger in the camera trap.

Tiger paw

Tiger paw

The Tiger Estimation exercise is the world’s largest wildlife survey effort in terms of coverage, intensity of sampling and quantum of camera trapping.  An amount of Rs. 10.22 crore will be invested by the Government in the fourth cycle of All India Tiger Estimation.  Financial assistance to the tune of Rs. 7 crore will be provided to the States through the ongoing Centrally Sponsored Scheme of Project Tiger.

A robust Phase IV monitoring protocol is in place to assess tigers annually, which has been archived in a National Repository of Camera Trap photographs of tigers.  It helps Field Directors to have prior knowledge about resident tigers.  This process is complemented by the quadrennial All India Tiger Estimation.  The Government and NTCA have also carried out an economic valuation of tigers in mitigating the adverse impact of climate change.  Such interventions and processes have been operationalised through a legally mandated Tiger Conservation Plan to ensure that it is institutionalized.

India conducts the All India Tiger Estimation every four years.  Three cycles of the estimation have already been completed in 2006, 2010 and 2014.   These estimates showed estimates of 1, 411, 1, 706 and 2, 226 tigers respectively.  The methodology has remained the same in the three cycles in terms of concept, but latest scientific developments in the field of animal abundance estimation have been incorporated and the best available science to evaluate tiger status has been used.

For the national status assessment 2014, Spatially Explicit Capture Recapture (SECR) in a joint distribution approach, with ecologically relevant covariates was used.  This approach makes use of two samples – the first sample is collected by the forest staff of 18 tiger states and is constituted by structured protocols that are easy and economical to generate information on the presence of tigers and relative abundance, along with information on prey, co-predators, habitat and human impact.  The second sample is carried out by trained wildlife biologists who collect information using camera traps on tiger, leopard and prey abundance.  Individual tigers and leopards are identified using a customized software that uses the stripe and spot patterns (similar to human fingerprints) to identify individuals.

In 2014, over 70% of the estimated tiger population was through camera trapping, where 1686 photographs of individual tigers had been obtained.  The remaining 30% of tigers were from areas that had tigers, but had not been camera trapped and were estimated by using robust statistical models, where ecological covariates of prey, habitat and human impact were used.

The Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 was amended in the year 2006.  Since then, the Government has taken several initiatives in the field of tiger conservation.  Tiger conservation was given statutory backing.  The newly-created NTCA was mandated to carry out estimation of population of tiger and its natural prey species and assess status of their habitat.

The Tiger Task Force realized that a major lacuna in tiger conservation was the absence of a credible, scientific national monitoring protocol that will inform policy-makers and wildlife managers on –

  1. Spatial extent and the size of tiger population in India;
  2. Welfare factors in these and neighbouring habitat (prey status, human pressure, other wildlife species, status and habitat conditions);
  3. Trends in the population and area occupied over time.

Following discussions and consultations with international experts, it was decided that the Wildlife Institute of India will be mandated with the task of developing and implementing the status assessment every four years under the direction of NTCA and in collaboration with State Forest Departments, civil society and NGOs.  The decision was based on a pilot study conducted by WII on a large landscape (Satpura-Maikal > 20, 000 sq km in Madhya Pradesh) wherein, the Project Tiger and WII had developed protocols that combine simple, yet scientifically robust protocols for data collection by field forest staff, in combination with rigorous statistically sound methods like camera trap based capture-mark-recapture models, implemented simultaneously by trained wildlife biologists.  This approach was found to be best-suited for field conditions in India, where the field staff provides large manpower for survey across the 400, 000 sq km of tiger-bearing forests across 18 Indian states.

The national status assessment exercise provides details such as the size of tiger population, extent, covariates of prey, co-predators, habitat and human impact.  It has been observed that tiger population in India has increased at an average rate of about 5.8 per cent since the year 2006.


Environment Ministry launches Green Good Deeds Movement

The Ministry of Environment, Forest & Climate Change has launched a people-oriented campaign named “Green Good Deeds” to help restore and return the environment to a clean and green state for the next generation. The Union Minister for Environment, Forests and Climeate Change (MoEF&CC) Dr. Harsh Vardhan said that it is not impossible to restore our environment and make it clean and green again and also “it is not merely a technical issue, but a moral responsibility to restore the environment to its former state.

The Government plans to broad-base this Green Good Deeds into a movement with the involvement of teachers, students and other voluntary organisations. So the Union Minister for MoeF&CC, Dr Harsh Vardhan has appealed to the teaching community to join the “Green Good Deeds” campaign, launched by the Ministry to sensitise the people and students, in particular, about climate change and global warming.

“The whole world is concerned about the dangers of global warming and climate change. People in Delhi are already facing air pollution. Environment and its effects on the life of human beings are now on the agenda at every global forum. Everyone is looking up to India with expectation because they think that Indians have the DNA to protect the environment. Our ancestors had made protection of environment an integral part of their lifestyle. It was a ‘part-n-parcel’ of our culture – our ancestors worshipped the rivers, air, trees or forests and earth and existed in harmony with the land,” Dr Harsh Vardhan said.

The Minister reminded the teachers of their “Green Social Responsibility” (GSR), similar to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR).  Referring to the crucial role played by “Polio Sainiks” from municipal corporation schools in the Pulse Polio campaign, he underlined the need for “Green Sainiks” to broad-base the Green Good Deeds movement and to take it down to the grassroots level successfully.


Celebration of World Wetlands Day at Deepor Beel in Assam 

The World Wetlands day was officially celebrated at Deepor Beel, a Ramsar Site in Guwahati in Assam. The 2018 theme ‘Wetlands for a sustainable urban future’ marks the role of healthy wetlands play in making cities and towns liveable, through their role in groundwater recharge, buffering floods, filtering wastewater, enhancing landscape aesthetics, providing income generation opportunities and ultimately supporting well-being.

Speaking on the occassion Dr. Harsh Vardha, the Union Minister for MoeF&CC reminded people that Wetlands play a vital role for the cities and for the humanity. “They serve as a source of drinking water; reduce flooding and the vegetation of wetlands filters domestic and industrial waste and improves water quality. Save them, save humanity”, the Minister said on the occasion of World Wetlands Day.

Every year, February 2 is celebrated as World Wetlands Day, to mark the date of adoption of Ramsar Convention on Wetlands. The Convention on Wetlands, called the Ramsar Convention, is an intergovernmental treaty that provides the framework for national action and international cooperation for the conservation and wise use of wetlands and their resources. The Convention was adopted in 1971 at the Iranian City of Ramsar. India is a party to the Convention since 1982, and committed to the Ramsar approach of wise use of wetlands.

In a message on the World Wetlands Day 2018, Dr. Harsh Vardhan said, “On this World Wetlands Day, I appeal to all of you to put your heart and soul into developing a strong movement for “Green Good Deeds” in this country. I think this is our Green Social Responsibility towards the society and the nation and of course for this whole planet. It is our solemn duty to protect the rights of the children, who are yet to take birth. It is our duty also to ensure that we give back to our children an environment which is clean and green.”

According to National Disaster Management Authority, 12% of land in India is prone to floods and river erosion. Wetlands in India account for 4.7% of the total geographical area.


Equipment Discussions:

Fujifilm launches X-H1 Mirrorless camera

Fujifilm today unveiled its latest professional mirrorless camera X-H1 in India in a glittering ceremony ceremony. Following is a brief firstlook impressions. Hopefully we can do a full review of the camera as it shows a lot of promise.

The Fujifilm X-H1 camera has got a 24.3 MP APS-C sized sensor (23.6mm×15.6mm ). Fujifilm calls it “X-Trans CMOS III with primary color filter”. This camera comes in the Fujifilm X mount. Being mirrorless, it is quite small as well as compared to DSLR cameras. The sensor doesn’t have an OLPF (Optical Low Pass Filter). So Fujifilm is confident about handling moire.

The body appears to have a nice rugged built using magnesium alloy. Fujifilm claims this is 25% more stronger and is weather sealed with 94 points in body and in grip.

Read more by clicking the below link –

Fujifilm launches X-H1 Mirrorless Camera


Panasonic announces GH5s camera with high sensitivity

Panasonic has announced a new version of GH5 camera batched as Lumix GH5s with a newly developed 10.2 MP sensor for low light filming. This new sensor allows shooting in low light upto 51,200 ISO as normal ISO range. It also has dual native ISO of ISO 400 and ISO 2500 so that in low light scenes one can switch to the ISO 2500 as base ISO.

The Lumix GH5s records DCI 4K (4096×2160) at 60p at 150 Mbps with 4:2:0 8 bit Long GOP, 30 fps and 150 Mbps with 4:2:2 10-bit Long GOP; and 24 fps and 400 Mbps with 4:2:2 10-bit ALL-I.

Read more by clicking the below link –

Panasonic announces GH5s camera with high sensitivity


LG announces 32UK950 monitor with 4K and nano IPS technology

LG has just announced New monitor with Nano IPS technology and Thunderbolt 3 connectivity. The new 32UK950 monitor is a 32 inch, UHD (4k) monitor and has support for HDR 600. It can easily be connected to the Macbook Pros with thunderbolt 3. So pretty excited to see when (and if) it reaches India market. Sharing the detailed Press Release below.

Read more by clicking the below link –

LG announces 32UK950 monitor with 4K and nanoIPS technology


Arri Launches Large Format Cinema Camera Arri Alexa LF

Arri the most reputed amongst the cinema camera manufaturers have launched the Arri Alexa LF with 4.5K resolution. This is the first time Arri has launched a camera with native sensor resolution of 4k or above for sale. It had previously launched the Arri Alexa 65 which was only for rental for highend Hollywood films.

Read more by clicking the below link –

Arri Launches Alexa LF 4k large format camera


Natural History

COUNTRY NOTEBOOK: M. Krishnan: ‘Black Drongo‘ shared By Saktipada Panigrahi


Wildlife Photography

Female Tiger in Tadoba by Jitendra Katre

Chinkara by V S Sankar!

Desert-Fox by Vipin Sharma

Roufous-Tree-Pie by Shyamala Kumar

Green Vine Snake with kill by Jerin Dinesh

Coromandel Marsh Dart by Arun Acharjee

Funnel Web Spider by Anil Kumar Verma

Porcelain Crab by Prajwal Ullal


With this issue we start our 10th year of uninterrupted publication. I look forward to your inputs and support in preserving the last tracts of wilderness and wildlife left in our beautiful country and raising awareness about it. For other interesting articles and images check –

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Sabyasachi Patra

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IndiaWilds Newsletter-February-2018 (5.7 MB, 280 downloads)
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