Sabyasachi Patra

IndiaWilds Newsletter Vol. 11 Issue IV

IndiaWilds Newsletter Vol. 11 Issue IV

ISSN 2394 – 6946

Download the full Newsletter PDF by clicking the below button –
IndiaWilds Newsletter PDF-April-2019 (9.0 MB, 117 downloads)

How Green is your party?

IndiaWilds Newsletter PDF-April-2019

IndiaWilds Newsletter PDF-April-2019

India is in the midst of General elections – the largest in the world. Millions of voters vote on variety of issues and promises made to them by their candidates and parties. A major instrument of promises is the election manifesto which political parties release on the eve of the elections. These election manifestos summarise the issues that the parties are supposed to hold dear and act upon once they win the elections. We proceed to analyse the Manifestos of the two principal political parties in India to find out how they treat environment, forests, wildlife and climate change.

Analysis of BJP manifesto from environment, wildlife & climate change perspective:

Forest Clearance: The BJP manifesto says “We have ensured speed and effectiveness in issuing forest and environmental clearances for eligible projects due to which we have added around 9000 Sq. Kms to the forest cover of the country. We are committed to maintaining this pace through adoption of cleaner practises to make our nation a greener country.” (Page 26)

How can issuing environmental clearances to divert forest land lead to increase in forest cover? How can cutting of forests for industries lead to increase in forest? Perhaps this is written thinking either no one reads the manifesto or perhaps BJP thinks the people who read the manifesto have no logical faculties in their brains. Nevertheless, this is a very telling commentary on the way the ruling party treats environment, wildlife and Climate change.

Air Pollution: The BJP also promotes its existing National Clean Air Plan by saying that it will be successful in reducing air pollution by 35% in the next five years. Given the abysmal state of air pollution level in India where by our cities are topping the list of most polluted cities in the world, this reduction even if it is achieved is too little. In Delhi the air quality index remains Severe (401-500) during Diwali and winter. The safe limit for PM2.5 and PM10 is 60 and 100. The PM2.5 even if it is reduced from current levels by 50% will still be way above the safe limits and will be killing millions of people. So the promise of 35% reduction in air pollution is completely irrelevant.



Forest Act: BJP manifesto claims “We have continuously protected and promoted the interest of forest dwellers particularly the tribal communities. We have endeavoured to provide basic amenities, such as roads, telephone connectivity and cooking gas connection in addition to houses and toilets, at the doorstep of people living in remotest forest areas. We are committed to continuing our work in this direction.”

Unfortunately, unlike the claim, forests are being diverted to industries. When the forest communities can no longer depend on the forest produce as the forests are either out of reach or have been so devastated by mining/woodcutting etc that the NTFP is not available. Many tribals complain that though various Governments give them rice through schemes, those are not nutritious enough for them. Tribals were once self-sufficient. The Primitive Tribals like dongria kondh and others only come down to buy salt and oil. Once you give away their forests to industries, their lifestyle is forcibly changed. No amount of giving telephone connectivity, cooking gas etc will help them as their self-sufficient lifestyle is disrupted. They have to now leave the forests and work as coolies and other such menial jobs. So the only thing that will come out is displacing the poor tribals and local communities and allow industries to grab their lands.

Ganga: The BJP Manifesto says “We are committed to ensure a clean and uninterrupted flow of river Ganga from Gangotri to Ganga Sagar. We will ensure that the sewerage infrastructure to deal with 100% of the waste water from the Ganga towns is completed and is functioning effectively, and take steps to enhance the river flow.

The villages located on the banks of the river, which are already open defecation free, will be taken up under a special project to ensure complete sustainable management of solid and liquid waste.”

Swami Gyan Swaroop Sanand started fasting for Aviral Ganga and Nirmal Ganga when his letters to the Prime Minister Modi didn’t get response and he died fasting. Thankfully now the demand of activists for Clean Ganga (Nirmal Ganga) and Aviral Ganga (uninterrupted flow) of Ganga has been mentioned in the Manifesto of BJP. So it is a good thing. However, the manifesto only talks about the clean part through solid and liquid waste management. Though the manifesto claims the banks are open defecation free, it is not. And also the major point that people miss is that unless a river flows uninterruptedly, it can’t be clean.

A river has a self-healing ability. You need to allow the river to flow so that the water can the percolate through sand, pebbles, rocks and underground layers and then come out clean. The Manifesto avoids talking how they will ensure uninterrupted Ganga because for Ganga to flow uninterruptedly lots of dams have to be dismantled. Some of these dams are already under heavy silt burden. The Government is now promoting navigation through rivers and prefers to keep the Ganga bound by dams. So this policy is against the Nirmal Ganga and Clean Ganga. So we don’t expect the situation to change in the ground level.

The dams were constructed primarily for power generation. Today the cost of solar power generation has decreased drastically. So the reason for existence of the dams in the Ganga basin and in most of the other river basins is over. Most of these dams were done without doing a holistic Environmental impact assessment. So the Government has to wake up and start dismantling many of these dams big and small to make the river flow again. Else it will remain another promise. And that is what is mostly likely going to happen. A revered river will continue to remain throttled and in chains.

Fisheries/Sea Weeds: The BJP manifesto says “We will facilitate farming of sea-weed, pearl as well as ornamental fish to ensure a better return to the fishermen.” Unfortunately, most of these are invasive species and will cause a huge harm to the ecology of the place. Sometime ago former President APJ Abdul Kalam had also said that sea weed should be cultivated. However, despite all his good qualities Abdul Kalam was not an ecologist and didn’t envisage the impact of exotics. So this is also another questionable claim in the manifesto.

Urban Mobility: BJP Manifesto says “We will launch a National Urban Mobility Mission to provide technology based urban mobility solutions to all urban local bodies and increase the use of public transport, enhance walkability and cycle use. Under this mission, we will incentivize cities to integrate the public transport systems such as metro, local trains and local buses with the private service providers in the sector such as, private bus operator, private taxi operator, the auto-rickshaw, e-rickshaw services, pedestrian and cycling infrastructure for a seamless and smooth last mile connectivity. We will also promote a common mobility card/ ticketing across different modes of transport.”

On the surface people will believe that such emphasis on technology will help however it is important to strike at the root cause of urban mobility issues. Without strengthening of Public transport infrastructure no city can survive. Private players have a role to play. However, the Government is always the largest people mover. Simple privatization leads to monopoly and inconvenience to people. So people continue to remain in the mode of owning cars and bikes and the result is congestion of the roads.

Today the Delhi Government is facing problems for parking of its buses. Even though people want to use the Delhi Metro, the last mile linkage that is the commute from home to nearest metro and from the metro to the place of work is very costly. Parking in the metro station is also prohibitive. So people still travel by their own cars. Unless the cost of owning a car becomes a disincentive like the way people in Singapore face massive taxes for their cars, they will continue to own their own cars. Wholistic planning is required to clear the Urban transport mess. The BJP manifesto promises something however, without details it appears to be simple privatization like calling Ola and Uber kind of organisations into all transport modes. That is not going to work. It needs more planning.

Swachh Bharat Mission:

The Swachh Bharat Mission is one of the programs of the current Government which has a good top of mind recall. In the current manifesto BJP says “We have constructed over 9 crore toilets under our flagship programme, Swachh Bharat Mission. We will take the Mission to a new level through sustainable Solid Waste Management in every village. Through the mission, we will ensure 100% disposal of liquid waste through emphasis on faecal sludge management and reuse of waste water in rural, peri urban and unsewered areas. We will ensure that all habitations attain open defecation free status and those that have attained the status sustain the behavioural change.”

Open defecation poses a big challenge as the faecal matter leads to E.Coli in the waters. Antibiotic resistance is also transmitted to birds and wildlife. There are birds and mammals who feed on faecal matter. They form the prey base of predatory birds and animals. So the antibiotic resistance gets transmitted. So it is important to ensure that India is 100% open defecation free.

There is a dispute about the number of toilets constructed. Nevertheless, it has come to notice that despite toilet construction people use the toilets to store grains as due to lack water they prefer to defecate in the open. It is not a simple question of behavioural change but also a case of use of lot of water in the conventional toilets. Government has to work with NGOs to find a solution to this else the open defecation will continue. BJP raising this issue is good. However, more resources have to be allocated instead of spending it on publicity.

Renewable energy/Solar Power:

BJP Manifesto says “India has become a global champion in addressing the issues of climate change through effective and feasible interventions. We have achieved cumulative installed renewable energy capacity of 76.87 GW as on February, 2019 and are on track to achieve our goal of 175 GW by 2022. We will continue our efforts in this regard and make it a popular movement. We will further make all efforts to invite other countries of the world to become members of the International Solar Alliance.”

Unfortunately, the actions of the Government in raising duty on Solar is acting as a disincentive and there is focus on expediting coalbased power plants to favour Adani. (IndiaWilds Newsletter Vol. 11 Issue IIII If those issues are sorted out then Solar can take off in India. Else, despite the intent the pace will continue to remain slow.

There is however, one possible good thing in the Manifesto of BJP with respect to environment and wildlife.

Green Bonus: The BJP Manifesto says “We will ensure the Himalayan States are provided special financial assistance in the form of a ‘Green Bonus’ to facilitate the protection and promotion of forests in those states.”

The Northeastern states are now clamouring for development. The dense forests of North Eastern states of India were like lungs of our country. However, they are now being felled for concertisation and road building and drowned by constructing large dams in rivers etc. If the North Eastern states are given a Green Bonus in lieu of keeping their forests intact, then it would be a good thing. They can still make lot of money through tourism and the Green Bonus hopefully can top up their incomes.

Overall the BJP Manifesto reflects the complete lack of understanding as well as scant regard with which the party treats environment, forests, wildlife and climate change issues. So if any wildlife lovers, biologists and conservationists want to vote for BJP then it is like cutting the same branch before the point where they are sitting. It will only result in falling down with the cut branch.

Analysis of Congress from Environment, Forests, Wildlife and Climate Change perspective:

The Election Manifesto of Indian National Congress on Environment, Forests, Wildlife and Climate Change appears to have taken inputs from experts. Following are the salient points:

Wetlands & wastelands Regeneration:

The Congress manifesto promises wetland regeneration and employment generation through it. “We recognise the need to create lakhs of lowskilled jobs in order to absorb young men and women who have completed only a few years in school. Congress will launch 2 major programmes to be implemented through Gram Sabhas and urban local bodies that will create 1 crore jobs:

  1. Repair and restoration of water bodies (‘Water Bodies Restoration Mission’); and
  2. Regeneration and afforestation of wasteland and degraded land (‘Wasteland Regeneration Mission’). (Page 12)

We will launch MGNREGA 3.0 to address issues of water security, soil quality and similar issues

that aggravate farmers’ distress. To this end, we will:

  1. Increase the guaranteed days of employment up to 150 days in cases where 100 days have been achieved in a block/district;
  2. Use MGNREGA labour in the Waterbodies Restoration Mission and the Wasteland Regeneration Mission; (Page 14)

In the IndiaWilds Newsletter March 2019 issue we had talked about the importance of wetlands. So it is good to see that a party has included it in their manifesto. Linking it with job creation is good.

Earlier we had talked about creating jobs using MNREGA scheme in eradicating the invasive lantana weed from our forests. (IndiaWilds Newsletter, July 2015, ) Creating jobs in local level will lead to boosting the economy as the multiplier effect of the job creation and the money pumped into these jobs will help in increasing spending. Massive spending boost increases the GDP.

Environment Protection Authority (EPA):

The congress manifesto promises to “constitute, by law, an independent, empowered and transparent Environment Protection Authority (EPA) to establish, monitor and enforce environmental standards and regulations. The EPA will replace all other bodies that currently exercise jurisdiction and powers.”

We don’t have details. So hopefully it would be a strong agency as the Congress has said that “It is a bitter truth that India’s environment has deteriorated. The 2018 Global Environmental Performance Index placed India at rank 177 out of 180 countries. The BJP Government has done virtually nothing in the last 5 years to arrest this decline.” (Page 50)

Green Budgeting:

The Congress manifesto says “We will present the national accounts in a form that will account for the costs of environmental degradation and damage. The Annual Budget will adopt the core principles of Green Budgeting.” Countries devastate their natural wealth because they think that their forests, rivers, wildlife mean nothing. The concept of Green budgeting will weigh in with the cost of environmental devastation. So any diversion of forests and the overall impact on the economy will hopefully be captured if Green budgeting principles will be used. This is an important promise, which has not been done before.

Air Pollution:

The congress manifesto “recognises that air pollution is a national public health emergency. We will significantly strengthen the National Clean Air Programme in order to urgently tackle the problem of pollution. All major sources of emission will be targeted, mitigated and reduced to acceptable levels. Sectoral emission standards will be set.” Recently the agencies have stopped sharing air pollution data so that the Government can’t be questioned. So it is great to finally hear a party promising air pollution to be treated as a National Public Health Emergency and going to the root cause to solve the problem. A detailed plan of action needs to be drawn out to tackle air pollution in a holistic manner by integrating town & country planning and green areas.

Ecosystem conservation:

“We will formulate a comprehensive land and water use policy and plan that will include measures for the conservation of ecosystems and the bio-diversity and wildlife contained therein, without affecting the legitimate rights of local communities.” This is an extremely important point. For too long we have looked at conservation on a piecemeal basis. We have to move on to look at holistic conservation of entire landscapes.

It further says “We will work closely with the State Governments concerned to preserve the rich bio-diversity of the Himalayan range and the Western Ghats. However, the livelihood opportunities of the people living in these mountains will be protected.” Holistic view needs to be taken so it is good that this is included in the manifesto. However, we would have been happy if the manifesto of Congress had promised implementation of the Gadgil committee report on Western Ghats. Else the devastating Kerala floods of 2018 will happen repeatedly.

Conservation through local participation:

“Congress will confer legal and financial powers upon Panchayats and Municipalities to enable them to partner with State Governments in environment protection and management and to convert the total effort into a grassroots movement involving youth, women, communities and NGOs.

Congress promises to amend laws governing forests, re-define the role of the Forest Departments and make local communities the custodians of forests and shareholders of forest resources.”

This is an extremely important point as involvement of local youth, women and communities is often seen in successful conservation stories as was pointed out in the IndiaWilds March 2019 issue. The challenge of jobs for locals will be met as well as it will help in conserving the forests. This will in turn help in fighting erosion, climate change, bring in more rains etc.

Forest Cover:

Congress Manifesto says “We will work with State Governments to increase the forest cover from the current level of 21 per cent to 25 per cent by the year 2025 and, towards that goal, take the following steps:

  1. Re-define the words and phrase ‘forest’ and ‘forest cover’ in accordance with modern scientific standards;
  2. Assess the exact forest cover at the district level;
  3. Involve local communities in afforestation projects and the selection of species of plants; and
  4. Prohibit and penalise the diversion of funds for forest conservation and afforestation.”

The forest cover of 21% as defined by the current Government is a big joke. Plantations are not forests. So a study in accordance with modern scientific standards is need of the hour so that we know the actual condition. Involvement of local communities for afforestation is a good move. We had in the past suggested eradication of lantana and plantation of native species. This would be a good move if implemented.

Shola Forests

Shola Forests

Sand mining:

It is good that the Congress manifesto says “We will allow the import of sand for construction and stop the illegal mining of sand in riverbanks.” Sand mining is killing our rivers. And that impacts not only the riverine ecosystem but also the water security of the nation. However, politicians along with the Sand mining lobby are generally hand in glove. So it is to be seen how this will be controlled.

Sand mining

Sand mining


“Congress promises to double the budget allocation for cleaning rivers, including the Ganga. Congress promises to review the current methodology for cleaning rivers and to strengthen efforts by employing the latest advances in science and technology. We will convert the Ganga Action Plan into a People’s Programme and implement the same.” It also says “Congress will join hands with State Governments to stop, fully and finally, the discharge of effluents into the rivers and to clean all the rivers of India.

Promise to double the current spending in cleaning rivers is good. However, again the core issue of river flowing uninterrupted is not clearly defined. In the past, the Manmohan Singh led UPA Government had stopped hydel power projects on the demand of Swami Gyan Swaroop Sanand despite lot of investments already done. However that needs to become a policy and make our rivers flow free. Hopefully the new Government takes care to ensure that Ganga and other rivers flow in an uninterrupted manner.

Renewable Energy:

The Congress manifesto says “We will formulate a policy on Clean Energy in existing power plants that use fossil fuels and promote Green Energy to enhance the share of solar and wind energy in the total supply of energy.

Congress promises to enhance availability of, and access to, electricity in rural areas by encouraging investment in off-grid renewable power generation with ownership and revenues vesting in local bodies. Every village and every home will be electrified in the true sense. In the long term, we aim to substitute LPG used in homes by electricity and solar energy.” (page 13)

This is an interesting point made by congress. The power sector sees massive transmission losses. The cost of erecting transmission lines to distant villages is also huge and has to be borne by all consumers. So instead experts talk about creating off-grid power using renewable power as a better solution for distant communities. Promoting Solar energy in cooking would be really beneficial as LPG today has already touched 900 rupees per cylinder and hence people despite having LPG connections are still using fuelwood.

Urban Mobility:

“Congress promises to formulate and implement a policy on urban transport with emphasis on metro rail, suburban rail, electric vehicles, public bus transport, hired vehicles and shared vehicles. We will encourage non-motorised transport, namely, walking and cycling.” (Page 14)

Like the BJP Manifesto the Congress also doesn’t have much details in this regard. However, the Congress manifesto atleast talks about its focus on public transport unlike the BJP, which wants to privatize everything.

Revamping Agriculture:

The election manifesto of congress talks about revamping agriculture to revive it. Since Agriculture also impacts pollution, is impacted by climate change and is also impacting our natural world through the use of synthetic pesticides, fertilisers etc it is an important component to tackle. The manifesto says “Congress promises to establish a permanent National Commission on Agricultural Development and Planning consisting of farmers, agricultural scientists and agricultural economists to examine and advise the government on how to make agriculture viable, competitive and remunerative. The recommendations of the Commission shall be ordinarily binding on the government. The Commission will subsume the existing Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices and recommend appropriate minimum support prices.”

It would be pertinent to mention that the existing commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices produces many reports which have gone unimplemented. For example its report says that the paddy grown in Punjab, Haryana is highly water intensive, depletes the groundwater level and since the farmers immediately want to clear the fields for other crops they burn the paddy stalk and that leads to massive air pollution in Delhi. Punjab, Haryana hardly eat rice and hence growing rice there makes no sense as it depletes the water table and creates pollution. Hopefully by revamping agriculture, there would also be more focus on the holistic impact of agriculture on our environment.


Looking at the overall depth and breadth of coverage of environment, wildlife and climate change related issues, clearly the manifesto of Congress comes up on top as it contains the issues often raised by conservationists. In comparison the manifesto of BJP bluffs and is also very shallow on its promises, clearly showing that nature, environment, wildlife and climate change etc are not important for BJP despite claims to the contrary.

It is a fact that there is an unprecedented division in this country along religious lines due to the philosophy of the ruling party. And the present Government favouring opening up of forests and ecologically fragile areas for wildlife is increasingly supported by many conservationists and forest officials who place allegiance to party over the interests of conservation of environment, forests and wildlife. If anyone cares to think about environment, wildlife and the future of our life in this planet earth then he/she would be advised to read this analysis. Hopefully people will realise that when the future of human survival in this planet earth is at stake, it would be important to vote for the party which promises to preserve our environment, our rivers, wetlands, forests and help in fighting climate change. Remember that India is bigger than any party or person. If you care for the well being of our nature and of planet earth, then raise your voice and also vote. Only if you tell politicians that you are not voting for them due to their lack of care for environment, then they will wake up and start acting on nature, environment, wildlife and climate change issues. Time to act is NOW.


Safe Haven: Telineelapuram for Pelicans and Painted Storks

Mrs. Shakti Bishnoi and Mr. A S Bishnoi

Safe Heaven: Telineelapuram For Pelicans and Painted Storks


Conservation News:

Tiger reserve status for Nandhaur Wildlife Sanctuary in Uttarakhand

The number of tigers have been on steady rise at Nandhaur Wildlife Sanctuary in Uttarakhand. Officials feel upgrading it to a tiger reserve would be necessary for the conservation of tigers at the facility.

Tiger in Bandhavgarh


Director of the sanctuary N N Pandey said, “The number of tigers at the sanctuary when it came into being in 2012 was nine which rose to 27 in 2018. The number is set to cross 32 this year,”. The Nandhaur Wildlife Sanctuary is situated in Kumaon, is located close to the Nandhaur river and spread over an area of 269.5 square km.

The limited resources at the disposal of the sanctuary may not be sufficient to efficiently handle the responsibilities for long. Pandey added “Though the Wildlife Institute of India and the Forest Department are working hard with financial help from the Zoological Society of London to maintain the sanctuary as a safe habitat for tigers, the task may get difficult in the long run,”.

To get the central government funds and the expertise of national level zoological scientists to conserve the growing population of tigers at the sanctuary, it is required by the state government to elevate it as a tiger reserve.

He also said that the situation becomes rather delicate from the point of view of tiger conservation as the sanctuary at present does not come formally under the ambit of the National Tiger Conservation Authority.

Senior biologist at the Dehradun-based Wildlife Institute of India, Ajaj Spengku, said the density of tiger population at the sanctuary is very healthy and every step should be taken to boost its resources and maintain it as an ideal habitat for tigers.


Mining along Kaziranga banned by Supreme Court

The Hon’ble Supreme Court bench of Justice Arun Mishra and Justice Deepak Gupta has banned all mining activities along the Kaziranga National Park and also along the catchment area of rivers originating in the Karbi Anglong Hills in Assam. The Supreme Court had banned mining in Karbi Anglong hills in 1996. A Central Empowered Committee (CEC) was constituted to investigate and report about the presence of illegal mining in the region. The SC bench issued the order after the CEC (Central Empowered Committee) report found that illegal mining was continuing in the Karbi Anglong hills.

The Supreme Court bench said ““We order that all kinds of mining and related activities along the aforesaid Kaziranga National Park area and in the entire catchment area of rivers/streams and rivulets originating in Karbi Anglong Hill ranges and flowing into the Kaziranga National Park, including Tiger Reserve are restrained. No new construction shall be permitted on private lands which form part of the nine identified animal corridors.”

The Supreme Court bench also issued a notice to the Assam government and directed it to respond within three weeks. The Assam DGP has been directed to ensure compliance of the Supreme Court order to prevent illegal mining.

There is illegal mining around Kaziranga, which is said to be done with tacit understanding of the local politicians. The illegal mining is carried out by locals as well as illegal settlers in those places. 


Equipment Discussions:

Four New Canon XA Professional Camcorders Feature 4K 30p High-Quality Recording:

XA55, XA50, XA45 and XA40 Camcorders Deliver Crisp 4K Imagery in Compact Bodies at Affordable Price Points.

Canon U.S.A. Inc., a leader in digital imaging solutions, today announced four new additions to the lineup of XA Series professional camcorders, the XA55, XA50, XA45 and XA40. These four camcorders are the first in the series to feature 4K 30p recording. They also include a detachable XLR handle and the XA55 and XA45 each feature an HD-SDI terminal. In addition, the company has announced the Canon VIXIA HF G60 4K UHD camcorder, a budget-friendly, compact-and-lightweight camcorder.

For more details click below link –


Parrot launches ANAFI Thermal drone:

Parrot has launched a unique compact drone with thermal and 4K camera.

Parrot launches ANAFI Thermal drone


Natural History

COUNTRY NOTEBOOK: M. Krishnan: ‘Elephants in Musth‘ shared By Saktipada Panigrahi


Wildlife Photography

Desert Fox Pups by Vipin Sharma
Flying Squirrel by Shyamala Kumar
Dhole by Jerin Dinesh

Golden Langur by Samrat Sarkar

Greater-Painted-snipe by Joydip Mukherjee

Grey-Francolin by Mrudul Godbole

Crimson-Backed-Sunbird by Paramvir Singh

Blue-Capped Rockthrush by Govind Vijayakumar
Bee by Prajwal Ullal


This is the 124th issue of IndiaWilds. India now is conducting the world’s largest elections to election Member of Parliaments for 543 seats. In the lead article in this issue we examine the promises made by the two major parties in India regarding conservation of environment, wildlife, forests and containing climate change issues. Unless conservation issues become a major part of our reason for voting our politicians, it would be difficult to protect our fast vanishing wilderness and wildlife. It would be a great disservice to the subsequent generations if we fail to act in time.

I look forward to your inputs and support in preserving the last tracts of wilderness and wildlife left in our beautiful country and raising awareness about it. For other interesting articles and images check –

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Sabyasachi Patra

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IndiaWilds Newsletter PDF-April-2019 (9.0 MB, 117 downloads)
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